INTRODUCTION : Vijay Diwas is celebrated as a victory of India over Pakistan in Indo – Pak War of 1971 for the liberation of Bangladesh from the Pakistan. On 16 December every year, the anniversary of Vijay Diwas is observed across India by remembering the sacrifice of brave soldiers, by paying tributes to martyrs who laid down their lives for the nation. In the national capital, New Delhi, the Indian Ministry of Defence and all the three heads of Indian Armed Forces pay homage at Amar Javan Jyoti at India Gate in New Delhi as well as in the National Military Memorial located in Bangalore. On 16 December 1971, the Chief of the Pakistan Forces General Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi along with 93,000 troops surrendered to the aligned forces consist of Indian Army and Mukti Bahini led by General Jagjit Singh Arora. The day and event is also commemorated in Bangladesh as “Bijoy Dibosh”.
VIJAY DIWAS : Vijay Diwas also known as Bijoy Diwas in Bengali and the Victory Day in English is celebrated on every 16th December in India and Bangladesh to rejuvenate Bangladesh's victory over Pakistan in India Pakistan war of 1971 from the liberation of Bangladesh and Pakistan respectively that also led to the creation of Bangladesh. On this day, 49 years ago in 1971, India won over Pakistan on December 16 after a 13-day India-Pakistan war, It was one of the shortest wars but saw one of the biggest surrenders.
INDO – PAK WAR OF 1971 : Pakistan’s strikes led to the start of war. The results of war were ultimately unilateral and unconditional surrender of Pakistan army which was leaded by the chief of Pakistani forces, general Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi along with the troops of 93000 armed force of Pakistan. They signed the instrument of surrender in Dhaka and surrendered to Indian army's allied forces and Mukti Bahini which was leaded by general Jagjit Singh Aurora of India in the Suhrawardy Udyan(now), Ramna race course(before). The war was fully supported and extended with potential from the Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi, which was a great help for the liberation struggle of (East Pakistan) Bangladesh that helped it to become a free nation.
Indian Army captured Pakistan’s territory and over 38000 soldiers of Indian and Pakistan were killed. The 1971 war of Indo-Pak was led by the Indian Army Chief General Sam Manekshaw. According to media reports, 3,900 Indian soldiers were martyred and 9,851 soldiers were injured in this war.
IMPORTANCE OF VIJAY DIWAS : On this day, each and every citizen of the country pays tribute to the brave soldiers of Bangladesh and India who sacrificed down their lives on the line of duty and also took part in successive liberation of war.
Every year, on 16 December, senior officials, war veterans, students and other citizens of country lay wreathes and remember the sacrifices of the soldiers. Also in Bangladesh people shower their respect to freedom fighters, martyrs and Birangonas.
Army Chief Bipin Rawat, Airforce Chief RKS Bhadauria and Naval Chief Admiral Karambir Singh paid tributes to the martyrs on the occasion of Vijay Diwas 2019 where as On Vijay Diwas 2020, Swarnim Vijay Varsh was organised by the government as 50th anniversary of Vijay Diwas.
CAUSE OF WAR : In the East Pakistan, the "liberation war" was initiated after Pakistan ill-treated its population who's speaking mother tongue was Bengali and undermined elections result in the region. So looking forward to the situation the then Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi extended full potential support to the liberation of war.
MIGRANT – MASSACRE : It was reported that at least Ten Million People were allegedly forced to migrate to India, along with there were news of massive massacre with Bengali people's especially with Hindus by the Pakistani army. Other major reports also included that the iconic monument Taj Mahal was camouflaged by leaves during the war to save it from Pakistani attacks.
SOME KEY MOMENTS FROM THE WAR THAT BROUGHT INDIA CLOSER TO VICTORY
1. Battle of Longewala
2. Battle of Hilli
3. Operation Trident
4. INDIA shrugs off U.S 7th fleet
5. Battle of Basantar
SWARNIM VIJAY VARSH : The government has organized the ''Swarnim Vijay Varsh'', in which the Prime Minister Narendra Modi and the Defense Minister Rajnath Singh has marked their presence. The event has been held at the national war memorial in New Delhi. Prime Minister, Chief of Defence staff and Tri – Service Chief paid homage to the brave soldiers, Prime Minister Narendra Modi lighten up the Swarnim Vijay Mashaal from the eternal flame of National War Memorial and Veterans and Veer Naris were felicitated on the 50th Anniversary of Vijay Diwas. Four Victory Mashaal were lighten up that would be carried to various parts of the country including villages of Param Vir Chakra and Mahavir Chakra Awardees of 1971 War. Soil from the villages of these awardees were brought to the National War Memorial. Ministry of Defence for state Shripad Yesso Naik and other Senior Civil and Military Officials of the Ministry of Defence were also present.
 Mukti Bahini - Bangladeshi Force
 Birangonas - A term used to refer women freedom fighters
 Veterans and Veer Naris - Ex member of the Armed Forces
Author : Kiran Israni,
Student of Baba Saheb Ambedkar College Of Law, Main Branch, Nagpur.