"They (Naxals) are not terrorists because they don't resort to irresponsible acts of terror by planting bombs on streets. Naxals are fighters who fight for their rights. They don't harass the common man and the poor."
- Om Puri
India has been rating the fastest-growing democracy in the world in the last 30 years as a result of its remarkable economic growth. Three main problems in the country, however, have jeopardised the country's international advancement, growth, and national unity. The Jammu and Kashmir conflict (dating back to India's independence), separatist movements in the North Eastern states (dating back to the early 1950s), and the Naxalite insurgency are among them (which started in West Bengal in the late 1960s).
The Naxalite name derives from Naxalbari in north-west Bengal, the centre of the tribal peasant uprising against local landlords in 1967, in far north-Western Bengali. Although rebellion was suppressed, several communist-led separatist movements emerged in remote, often tribal parts of India — primarily northeast India but later more widely elsewhere. The increase of Naxalism was in line with the growth of militant Communism in India, especially in the creation in 1969 of the Indian-Marxist-Leninist Communists (CPI-ML).
"Naxalites," "Naxals" and "Naksalvadi" are generically used to identify them. The Government of India has declared these groups as terrorist organisations under the Indian Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act of 1967. The Naxal leaders in China have their refugees. The Government of India has taken steps to reduce naxalism and rehabilitate the populace in question. The issue was not raised by the laws. The problem lies always in the fact that "how can the local and isolated masses, who have no communication tools, communicate these laws and provisions in a substantive manner? The attempt is to resolve this problem.
LAWS WHICH TACKLE NAXALISM
● National Rehabilitation and Resettlement Policy, 2007: The main function of this Law was to reduce the displacement of people of those affected areas and to provide good alternatives for people's dispersal. This was the policy of the Government for the people whose land is acquired for industrial growth by the Government. Under the said policy, at least one family member, along with vocational training and housing facilities, shall enjoy an employment opportunity in exchange for land.
● Chhattisgarh Special Public Securities Act, 2006: That Act provided for the definition of unlawful activities in those areas and declared some organisations illegal as well. This act gives the government the right to set up a consultative council wherever the State government feels it needs to be set up. It also sets out its methods, establishing such a committee and sanctioning penalties. In order not to commit crimes, while taking note of the place and bar / revision against intervention by courts, it is the government's power to inform the place which is used for an illegal purpose.
● Green Hunt: Operation was started in 2010, and the security forces were massively deployed in Naxal areas.
In 2010 the figure was reduced to 90 out of 223 districts affected by naxalism in nine years.
● Aspirations: Launched in 2018, the Aspirational Districts Program is intended to rapidly transform areas with relatively small advances in major social areas.
Continuous government efforts in the regions affected by naxalism have reduced the frequency of violent attacks.
EFFECTIVENESS AND SOLUTIONS
Since the government is in charge of moving the country on wheels on the track of development, therefore it will always declare that the laws are well implemented and interpreted. Realism is the only way to reflect what the society and its people are facing.
32% of the population in the Naxal districts are below the official poverty line, compared with 24 percent in other districts.
Secondly, the government of the state has an appalling record of public goods and services in those districts. Only 68% of homes are supplied with safe potable water in districts affected by Naxal, and 74% elsewhere.
Many of these problems are linked to one simple fact: people living in these areas are tribal peoples who receive special rights and privileges on paper but are in fact subject in India's caste-conscious society to brutal discrimination.
The mainstream must take the first step in order for Naxals to enter the political mainstream. To do so, the government must take the first step towards reconciliation. Otherwise, which politicians would like to be treated with Naxals and terrorists?
Innovative solutions are needed by the government to locate the armed groups in the thick woods of the naxalite region concerned. The local police are familiar with a region's language and topography; they are better able to fight against naxalism than military forces.
There are two things that the government needs to guarantee; peace-loving people's security and Naxal development. State governments must understand, and can only deal with, that naxalism is also their problem. If necessary, help can be arranged in the form of assistance from the central government.
India has succeeded to contain naxalism, but it has not yet addressed root causes. In order to guarantee the security of the people in Naxal-affected regions and take initiatives for the development of such regions, both the central and the state governments should continue following both the main strategy. The State must begin to deal legally with problems and try to minimise collateral damage. The leaders, the security and the peace-keeping forces should be strengthened. Instead of just targeting the Maoists, security forces could be used to protect the local people.