Female genital mutilation/amputation is a form of violence against women and girls. This includes all procedures including removal of parts or whole of the external genitals or other damage to the female genitals for non-medical reasons. It is estimated that more than 200 million girls and women worldwide are affected by this practice, putting about 3.6 million girls and women at risk each year. Female genital mutilation/amputation violates multiple human rights as stated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women and the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Human rights-based approaches to eradication include, but are not limited to, law enforcement, education programs focused on approval, and campaigns to recruit changes within the community.
Violence against women and girls affects women around the world and transcends cultural and economic boundaries. Extensive research on such violence and its root causes and risk factors has been conducted over the last two decades. Interventions in the medical, judicial and social spheres have grown rapidly to resolve violence against women and girls worldwide. These interventions, in large-scale campaigns, include educational programs, technology building, financial approval programs, community mobilization, and the educational efforts of participating groups. These interventions aim to change attitudes and norms in favour of violence against women and girls, empower women and girls economically and socially, and encourage non-violent and increment in equal behaviour.
The United Nations (UN) and the European Union (EU) have recently launched a long-standing global effort focused on eradicating all forms of violence against women and girls. This effort, entitled The Spotlight Initiative, is in line with the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, paying attention to violence against women and girls to achieve gender equality and women's recognition. It also emphasizes the importance of the targeted investment. To enable women and girls to see the new commitments of the United Nations and the European Union worldwide to achieve sustainable development. This initiative describes all forms of violence against women and girls, but especially domestic and domestic violence, sexual and gender-based violence and harmful practices include female murder, trafficking, sexual and economic exploitation to focus on.
One of the key indicators of gender inequality is female genital mutilation/amputation (FGM / C). FGM / C is associated with early marriage, forced debut, and lifelong health complications. To eliminate these practices, it is important to resolve the issue of girl and woman approval. This can have a positive impact on sexual relations, sexual and reproductive health choices, and generally health-related behaviours, thus accelerating the development of abandonment of the practice. The UN, the United Nations Children's Fund, the World Health Organization (WHO) and other female genital mutilation prevention organizations have adopted various strategies to raise awareness of female genital mutilation and eradicate female genital mutilation.
DEFINITION OF FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION/CUTTING
FGM includes all procedures that involve the total or partial removal of the external genitalia or other damage to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. Different types of FGM / C the WHO divides FGM / C into four categories:
Type I: partial or complete removal of the clitoris (clitorectomy) or foreskin.
Type II: partial or complete removal of the clitoris and labia minora, with or without removal of the labia majora (resection).
Type III: The vaginal opening is reduced by cutting and positioning the labia minora or labia majora to form a covering seal, with or without removal of the clitoris (resection).
Resection: a Resection in women Surgery to narrow the vaginal opening after the vagina (for example, after childbirth), also known as re-suture.
Type IV: All other harmful operations performed on the female genitalia for non-medical purposes (such as puncture, pulling, piercing, cutting), curettage, burned).
HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATION
The 2008 UN inter-institutional declaration defined FGM / C as a violation of human rights, a form of gender discrimination and a form of violence against girls. This practice violates several human rights described in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Article 3 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights stipulates that everyone has the right to life, liberty and security. People. Unfortunately, in many countries, women and girls cannot fully control their lives, their freedoms or their bodies.
On December 18, 1979, the United Nations General Assembly approved the "Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women", which entered into force on September 3, 1981. The Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women defines discrimination against women and outlines an international action agenda to end this discrimination. 45 The basic idea of the Convention is that “discrimination against women violates the principles of equal rights and respect for human dignity”. Article 5 obliges States parties to Other practices”
Although the Convention on The Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women aims to change the "patterns of social and cultural behaviour" of men and women, "not all countries are willing to participate. Somalia is one of the few that has not signed or ratified the Convention. One of the countries that have indicated that it does not wish to recognize certain basic human rights. Somalia's non-participation in the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women may also indicate that the activities and political traditions of the country should be developed from a legislative perspective.
The Convention on the Rights of the Child mentions children the ability to make their own decisions continues to increase in matters that directly affect them. However, when it comes to female genital mutilation, even when the girl clearly accepts the procedure, the decision is a direct result of social pressure and community expectations. Therefore, a girl’s decision to accept female genital mutilation/cutting cannot be considered free, informed or uncoerced. One of the guiding principles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child is that "the best interests of the child" are the primary consideration. “Some parents who decide to allow their daughters to accept FGM/C believe that the benefits outweigh the risks. However, this view does not justify permanent and life-changing practices that constitute a violation of the basic human rights of girls. The Convention is clearly mentioned harmful traditional practices, such as female genital mutilation. The Committee on the Rights of the Child and other United Nations treaty bodies often state that female genital mutilation/female genital mutilation is a violation of human rights and calls on States parties to take all effective and appropriate measures to abolish this Practice.
Female genital mutilation/C violates some recognized human rights principles, norms and standards, including the principles of equality and non-sex discrimination, the right to life (when the procedure leads to death), the right not to be tortured. And cruelty, Inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, and children’s rights. Because it interferes with healthy genital tissues without medical necessity and may have serious consequences for women’s physical and mental health, FGM/C is also, although many governments around the world recognize FGM/C as violence against women and girls and a violation of human rights, this issue has been overshadowed by the debate because the practice is deeply rooted in culture and traditions that make legislation Difficult to pass and enforce.
Female genital mutilation/cutting is a manifestation of gender inequality and the empowerment of women is essential to eliminate this practice. A series of documented plans, research and policy interventions led by various national and international NGOs and UN agencies are being implemented to encourage communities, families and individuals to abandon female genital mutilation / C.These strategies include advocacy and education interventions for communities and leaders, legislative interventions, capacity building interventions, health care interventions, media interventions, and community dialogue.
Solving the problems of female genital mutilation / cutting through education reveals the human rights of girls and women and the differential treatment that boys and girls receive. Man. Education can influence gender relations and accelerate the abandonment of this practice. Human rights-based programs that promote women's economic empowerment contribute to progress by providing incentives to change traditional patterns of behaviour, and women and girls as dependent family members must respect these patterns. Paid employment empowers women in all areas of life, affecting their choices for sexual and reproductive health, education, and general health-related behaviours.
There is a positive correlation between empowerment, community intervention, and knowledge about the health consequences of FGM / C. Rights-based plans must be community-led and must be adjusted according to the ideological structure of each community and racial and socioeconomic differences. Responding to the needs and priorities of the community plays an indispensable role in gaining the trust of the people and making relevant changes.